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      Padre Félix Varela y Morales

(1788-1853)

A  Cuban Catholic priest who loved his country and became an Apostle for Immigrants in New York
 

 

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An Apostle for the Immigrants:

The Exile Years of Father Félix Varela y Morales (1823- 1853)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROLOGUE by Beatriz Varela Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix         

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . .  1      

                The Times, Life Events, Issues, and Challenges

                of Father Félix Varela y Morales During his Exile

                Years in the United States.

Chapter 2. MAJOR WORLD EVENTS, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

                DURING THE LIFE OF FATHER VARELA.  . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

                           Historical Background and Events.

                           Summary of Issues and Challenges:

                                    Role of Environment and Circumstances.

                                    The Ugliness of Slavery.

                                    The Bourbons and the “Catholic Enlightenment.”

                                    The Age of Reason and Liberation.

                                    The Wars of Independence and the Search for Liberty.

                                    Father Varela’s Vision of the World of His Time.

Chapter 3. THE PRE-EXILE YEARS: CUBA AND SPAIN. (1788-182 . . . . . . . . . .33

                   Educational and Academic Beginnings.

                   Emergence of Civic and Constitutional Ideals: Formation

                             of the Cuban Consciousness.

   Participation of Father Varela in Las Cortes in Spain: Abolition

                             of Slavery and Cuban Independence (1821-1823.)

Chapter 4. FATHER VARELA AND THE IRISH IMMIGRATION IN NEW                     

                YORK: PASTORAL WORK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . .62

                    The Immigrant Catholic Church in North America

                              in the Early 1800s.

     The Myth of a Homogeneous and Religiously Unified

                     Population: The Urban Environment in Cities like New York

                                       in the 19th Century.

                      Structure and Activities of the U.S. Catholic Church.          

                      Social and Educational Challenges Brought About

by Immigrants: Catholic Schools and Public Education.                         

Catholic Churches as Havens for Immigrants: Catholic

                                       Leadership, Catholic Institutions of Higher Learning.

                  Threats and Fears Generated by Irish Immigration:

                            “Foreign Invasions” and "Romishness.”                                        

Public Discussions, Catholic Publications, and Journalistic

                                        Debates: Confrontations and Riots.                                 

                        The Catholic Outliers Become Mainstream.

               The Catholic Lay Boards of Trustees and the Issue of “Trusteeism.”

                          The Pastoral Care of the Irish Immigrants: Temperance Societies.

Chapter 5. FATHER VARELA, APOLOGIST AND DEFENDER OF THE FAITH IN

                   NEW YORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94

                      Protestants and Roman Catholics: The Nativism Movement.

                       Roots of Anti-Catholic Sentiments in the Colonies.

                       Emergence of the Nativism Movement in the United States.

                       The Protestant Rhetoric is changed into Populace Attacks.

                       Religious Debates with Protestants: Rev. Dr. Brownlee vs. Father

                              Varela.

                       Apologetic Writings and Homilies. 

Chapter 6. FATHER VARELA: EDUCATOR, WRITER, AND LIBERATOR . . . . . 114

 .                     Teacher of Cuban Youth at the Seminario San Carlos in Havana

                       Intellectual Guidance and Patriotic Leadership: El Habanero

                       The Search for Freedom from Oppression, Slavery, Ignorance,

                              Fanatism, and Superstition: Cartas a Elpidio.

Chapter 7. THE EXILE OF FATHER FÉLIX VARELA: CRUCIBLE

               FOR HIS LIFE AND SPIRITUALITY . . . . . . .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

  Major Stages in Father Varela’s Life.

                          The Formative Years in Cuba: Teacher and Public Figure.

                          The Exile Period in the United States: A Spiritual Journey.

                          The Character and Personality of Father Varela.

                          The Spirituality of Father Varela: Servant of the Lord.

                          The Legacy of Father Varela.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190

APPENDIX:

          DETAILED CHRONOLOGY OF THE TIMES AND LIFE OF

          FATHER FÉLIX VARELA Y MORALES. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  201

  GENERAL INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . .225

          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . .239

 

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Updated: February 1, 2010